11 Great Dungeon Master Tips Revealed at Winter Fantasy 2020

The Winter Fantasy convention fits into one hall at the convention center in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Despite the event’s compact size, it delivers as much Dungeons & Dragons as far larger conventions such as Origins or Gen Con. Plus, the con offers plenty of inexpensive hotel rooms. Sure, Fort Wayne suffers an icy February, but you come to game.

For dungeon masters who aim to improve their game, nothing beats running games for strangers. In close second comes playing at other DMs’ tables and learning their best techniques. (See If You Want to Write Games for Everyone, Game with Everyone).

At the 2020 convention, I came to play, and I found myself noting tips gleaned from every session.

1. When you have to deliver background, have players roll for it so it feels like a reward.

We all see adventures that start with bullet lists of background information for some patron to recite. Often, letting everyone roll, say, a history check makes a better way to reveal such backstory. Once everyone rolls, reward the lower results with the common knowledge, and the higher rolls with the lesser-known details. See In D&D, Letting Everyone Roll Certain Checks Guarantees Success, So Why Bother Rolling?.

2. Try to award every attempt to gather information with something.

I used to reveal every descriptive detail of a door, altar, or dungeon room right away. This made for long descriptions and held nothing for when players explored. You want to reward players’ investigations with some information, even just bits of color and flavor. I used to fear that holding back would deprive players of some necessary description. Now I trust that players will gather whatever details I hold back.

3. Show the written names of key non-player characters. Pictures are even better.

DMs love when players show enough interest to take notes, writing names and other details. This year I resolved to take such notes as I played. But fantasy character names became a problem. I would write what I thought I heard and always get it wrong. Even for non-note takers, seeing a name written helps scribe it in memory. Teachers write on a board for a reason. As a DM, you probably have an erasable grid surface in your kit. Use it to show names as well as maps.

For the most important characters, try to find a picture that suits them. Showing a picture makes the impression even stronger.

4. In interaction scenes, make sure players know their goal and see at least one potential route to success.

The best thing about combat scenes is that players rarely enter one without some idea of what they aim to accomplish. They have a goal and understand what to do. (Typically, kill the monsters.) Too often, adventurers start interaction scenes without seeing a potential route to success. Players flounder as they try to figure out what to do. That never makes for the most fun. See Avoiding the Awkward D&D Moment When a Priest, a Wizard, and a Dwarf Enter a Bar and Nothing Happens.

5. You can say, “You have learned all you can here,” or “You’ve done all you can here.”

Sometimes players continue searching a place or questioning someone well after accomplishing everything they can. DMs feel hesitant to say, “You have learned all you can here,” because it reveals something the characters would not know. Just say it. If you like, you can imagine that hours more of unproductive conversation happened off screen.

6. When players attempt something, make sure they understand the odds and the stakes.

We all love when players stake their characters’ lives on some reckless, nearly impossible stunt. Whether they succeed or fail, such moments make unforgettable gaming. But before any foolhardy undertaking, make sure the players know the odds and the result of failure. I typically share difficulty classes before players roll. These DC numbers help span the gulf between a character’s vivid sense of the game world and what a player learns from a DM’s description. DCs prevent misunderstandings. As for risks, make sure players know that, say, falling from the Earth mote means plunging into a sea of lava. That works better than rewinding the action for a player who heard “sea” and not “lava.” See Would You Play With a Dungeon Master Who Kept Your Character Sheet and Hid Your PC’s Hit Points?.

7. For a convention game, encourage players to put their character’s name on a table tent.

Based on anecdotal evidence collected from a few hundred convention games, I’m convinced that players need about 2 hours to learn the names of their partners in adventure. Table tents bring a simple remedy. Veteran convention players know this and bring their own. I suggest bringing note cards and a Sharpie so every player can make a tent.

8. Add, don’t subtract.

When you track damage to a monster, add the damage until it reaches the monster’s hit points. Some DMs subtract until they reach 0, which seems more cumbersome to us non-savants.

9. In roleplaying interactions, go ahead and split the party.

Never split the party applies to combat and exploration, but in roleplaying challenges, splitting up often proves more fun. Rather than the player with the most forceful personality taking most of the time in the spotlight, more players participate. As a bonus, ability checks work better when just a couple of players participate.

To make the most of a split party, cut between the smaller groups’ scenes. Every role-playing game reaches moments when the players make plans while the DM sits idle. Those moments bring my favorite times to switch scenes. This sort of switch keeps half the players busy planning while the rest act. Instead of waiting for decisions, I can give more players time in the spotlight. The tempo of the game feels faster. See Never Split the Party—Except When It Adds Fun.

10. Every time you ask for a check, you write a check.

Remember paper checks? Once, long ago, folks used to pay money by writing a promise to pay on a special slip of paper. With checks, you needed to back that promise with actual money in the bank. Ability checks sometimes work like paper checks. If you ask for a check, you promise to allow for failure. This year I saw bad rolls test a few DMs who realized a failure had to succeed for the adventure to continue. I watched their damage control as they hunted for a way to drag me to success. If the adventure leaves no room for failure, skip the check.

11. Speak like a storyteller.

When I DM, I tend to rush through my speaking parts. The habit comes from a good motive: I want to spend less time talking so the players do more playing. Seeing more measured DMs proves that sometimes going slower works better. The best DMs adjust their tempo, often slowing to give their words weight. They pause to emphasize, their tone expresses emotion, and it works. Fireside storytellers and preachers show it, and we DMs can learn it. Through practice, I hope to capture some of that knack.

15 thoughts on “11 Great Dungeon Master Tips Revealed at Winter Fantasy 2020

  1. Mr J

    “8. Add, don’t subtract.

    When you track damage to a monster, add the damage until it reaches the monster’s hit points. Some DMs subtract until they reach 0, which seems more cumbersome to us non-savants.”

    Does it really matter ? Unless you show the HP to your players (which i dont do) then adding damage or substracting HP doesnt change anything… Unless i completely missed your point.

    The 10 other points are interesting and i will try to add them to my games and see if my players and I like them.

    Thanks for another interesting post!

    1. MoonsilverTV on Twitter

      I know not a single person that subtracts faster than they add numbers.
      Adding the damage till you reach the monster’s max hp is simply faster than counting down and there is no reason to spend more time on it than necessary – or at least no reason I am aware of, I haven’t seen players be enthralled by my maths at the table yet.

    2. Jon Mattison

      I think a common “labor sharing” DM technique is to let each player track the damage of creatures, specifically what they are fighting. Counting up from zero lets the DM have custom HP monsters and still let the players do the counting work.

      1. Mr J

        Makes sense i guess. Reading your replies makes me realize i should probably try it… then again, I write everything monsters max hp down and substract from there every hit on each of them. But i work as a cashier so basic additions / substractions arent really something i need to think about.

  2. Jon Bupp

    5. You can say, “You have learned all you can here,” or “You’ve done all you can here.”

    I had a group that wouldn’t stop looking for secret doors. I would lock eyes with the player searching, roll the die, and say “you don’t find one” without breaking eye contact or looking at the die in any way.

  3. Mr. L

    Great article. DM’ing for a long time and enjoyed the tips! I do enjoy subtracting hit points from max so that I can then provide descriptions of more pain and suffering based on how many hp are left.

  4. Mike

    “3. Show the written names of key non-player characters. Pictures are even better.”

    I give out cards that have the name and picture of an NPC.

  5. Matt Secore

    Old school DM since 1977. I prefer to subtract damage. Players often ask how bad a creature looks and it’s easier to estimate a percent when I instantly know how many hit points monster has left.

  6. John Arendt

    Good advice all around, David. (Especially the storyteller advice – I know I can be more conscious about my delivery, pacing, and narrative skills).

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  8. CrLz

    Totally agree with #3 using pictures!

    I played 1st ed and now DM 5th, and I am amazed how much art is available now. I love to make picture handouts of NPCs, which both engages the imagination and helps with note taking. As functional props for theater of the mind, these can really add substance.

    I also like using monster pictures on initiative cards, hanging over the DM screen. I feel this can simultaneously introduce creatures without explicitly saying, “You are facing a ____”. Later skill checks can help fill in the blanks for the curious (“What was that thing that ate our cleric?”). There is so much art available, it’s easy to switch up a familiar monster with a different looking one, and perhaps is (evil laughter…)

  9. Yora

    My rule for #6 approaches it from the other side, but is basically the same idea: “When players attempt something, make sure YOU understand what the players imagine to happen.”
    When players seem to attempt things that seem foolish ot nonsensical, it’s almost always because they have a different image of their current situation than the GM. First nake sure you’re on the same page before telling a player to make a roll to attempt an impossible jump over a shark tank or attempt to disarm a bomb with a hammer. It’s generally not the player being an idiot, but the GM having failed to properly communicate the situation.

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